Acute inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is an instant response to the appearance of damaging stimuli and helps to combat infections and promotes tissue repair. Neuroinflammation refers to a chronic inflammation of the CNS which occurs when the host cannot reverse acute infection. Common causes include craniocerebral traumata, spinal cord injuries, viral infections, toxic metabolites, autoimmunity and ageing. Neuroinflammation is caused by resident immune cells and peripheral immune cells that cross the blood-brain barrier and is often associated with an increased blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability and breakdown. Neuroinflammation plays a key role in numerous neurodegenerative diseases of both adult and pediatric onset (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Gaucher disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)).
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